Saturday, October 11, 2008

Discovering the subtleties beneath the skin of an everyday superfood

Red and good

Discovering the subtleties beneath the skin of an everyday superfood.

TOMATOES are hailed as the new supeffood, able not just to combat cancer and cut cholesterol but also, it was revealed, to help keep skin youthful and protect against sunburn.

Although the health benefits of tomatoes are well established, the average Briton eats only 6kg of them a year, compared to the 36kg devoured by Italians.

The Brits are not known for adventurousness when it comes to tomatoes. I thought

that there were only four kinds round, plum, cherry, and the ones that come chopped in a can. So I'm astonished to find that there are more than 5,000 varieties in the world, and 5CI0 in Italy alone.

I have come to Italy to learn the ave of eating them from Paolo Battistel, a consultant

who is being vaunted as Britain's first "tommelier".

Growing up on a farm near Venice, tommelier Battiste[ learnt about tomatoes from his

maternal grandmother Maria, a formidable woman who grew them as a hobby. Every year she was determined to produce not only the earliest crop in their village but also the

biggest tomato.

Little Paolo began helping her from the age of four, and now, at 48, he is trouble shooting all over the globe and running specialist courses on cultivation at his tomato school near Lake Garda.

Like the grapes that go into wine, different tomatoes thrive in different types of soil and

with varying levels of sunlight.

"Like most Italians, I prefer tomatoes t6be green and acidic, but the British love them

sweet and red."

Today's four candidates all come from Sicily, which is known for pmducing some of

Italy's best tomatoes the harsh growing conditions and high salinity of the water in the coastal farms yield fruits with a very intense taste,

A variety called Cikito is of particular interest to Battisteh it has three times the normal

levels of lycopene, the pigment that gives tomatoes their deep red colour, and also acts

as a powerful antioxidant, capable of mopping up free radicals, the harmful molecules linked to cancer.

Placing four different tomatoes in front of me, Battistel asks me to guess which one is

Cikito. He gives me a clue: "The more lycopene a tomato has, the redder it is both on the

flesh and on the inside."

At first, they all look alarmingly similar. But by placing them directly next to each other, I see that one is definitely a much deeper shade of red than the others, and point to it triumphantly.

Battistel teaches me how to taste a tomato. First, I must savour it with the tip of my tongue to assess its sweetness, then roll it around each side of my mouth to check the acidity. Finally, I must push it up against the roof of my mouth and smear it across my

palate to assess its "mealiness".

I am not quite sure I have got the hang of this, but it seems to boil down to whether the tomato is crunchy or soft and how easily it will blend with other ingredients if used in a sauce.

A true tommefier would score each of thes attributes between one and 10, then plot them on a graph to depict the tomato's unique "fingerprint". Battistel lets me off lightly: all he asks me to do is say whether each tomato is sweet, acidic or mealy.

With the napkin tied over my eyes as an impromptu blindfold, the tasting gets off to a

good start. As soon as Battistel loads the first unseen tomato into my mouth, a burst of

sweetness hits the tip of my tongue. This is going to be easy. "Sweet!" I say.

I have similar success with tomatoes called Birikino and Caprese, though I falter on an

odd-looking green-and-red-striped specimen known as Zebrino,

The test is not over yet. We must also see what these tomatoes taste like when they are

cooked. For this, Battistel prepares them with great care.

Those destined for pizza are cut lengthways, from stalk to bottom, so that they pmduce less juice and avoid making the dough soggy. Those to be served on bruschetta are chopped crossways, so that they add as much moisture to the toasted bread as possible.

Battistel tells me that his grandmother prayed throughout her life that she would die

tending her tomatoes, She got her wish when she passed away in her garden eight years

ago, at the age of 93.

"It's how I would like to go, too," he says. Given that he eats some 90kg of this super-

food a year, his demise may be a very long way off yet. -@Telegraph Group Ltd,London


Pfizer launches dual-mode therapy to block nicotine's effect in the brain.

Let's quit

Pfizer launches dual-mode therapy to block nicotine's effect in the brain.

PFIZER Malaysia recently launched its new smoking cessation pill, varenicline, a

breakthrough non-nicotine oral medication. It has a novel mechanism of action which helps smokers quit smoking by providing dual benefits.

Varenidine is unique because it is specifically designed to partially activate the nicotinic receptor and reduce the severity of the smoker's craving and the withdrawal symptoms from nicotine.

Moreover, if a person smokes a cigarette while receiving treatment, it has the potential to diminish the sense of satisfaction associated with smoking.

This assists the attempting quitter by helping prevent the cycle of nicotine dependence.

Nicotine dependence makes quitting smoking very difficult and is one of the main reasons many smokers do not succeed in their attempts to quit.

When smokers inhale smoke from a cigarette, nicotine reaches the brain within seconds and binds to nicotinic receptors, which activates the reward pathway in brain circuitry. This stimulates the pleasure centre in the brain.

However, the initial effects of pleasure recede quickly. The rewards-or pleasurable effects rein-force a smokers' physical dependence on the nicotine contained in cigarettes.

Smokers then become accustomed to certain levels of nicotine in their systems and a drop in these nicotine levels results in a cycle of craving and uncomfortable with-drawal.

"Pfizer's discovery and development ofvamnicline demonstrates groundbreaking science leading to the first treatment aimed directly at smoking cessation," said Dr Wong

Kok Seng. Medical Director, Pfizer Malaysia, Singapore and Bmnei. "Smoking harms nearly every organ in the body and is a preventable cause of death. This innovahve

medication will now help many smokers end their nicotine dependence and enjoy healthier and happier lives."

In two identically designed varenicline studies, patients receiving a 12-week course of varenicline therapy ( lmg twice daily) nearly quadrupled the likelihood of quitting than those taking placebo and had nearly twice the likelihood of quitting than those patients taking buproprion (150rag twice daily).

Varenicline also demonstrated a favourable safety and tolerability profile in studies of almost 4,000 smokers.

"These results suggest varenidine is a significant advancement in the management of smoking cessation," said Dr Wang. "It is never too late to quit smoking. People who quit smoking before the age of 50 have one-half the risk of dying of a smoking-related illness in the next 15 years compared to those who continue smoking. Smokers who are unable to quit on their own should consider seeking medical support and treatment."

In trials, vareuicline was generally well tolerated, with overall discontinuation rates similar to placebo. The most common side effects included nausea, vivid dreams, headaches and vomiting.

"As everyone knows, it is extremely difficult to quit smoking," said Dr Wang. "For example, less than 7% of smokers who try to quit on their own achieve more than one year of abstinence. In fact, most smokers begin smoking again within a few days of attempting to quit. It takes about five to seven attempts -with or without treatment - before the average smoker is able to quit."

Because smokers need considerable support to successfully quit their dependency on nicotine, a support programme known as the Quitting Championship designed to help address behavioural components of smoking dependence will be made available to patients.

Recognising the need for greater awareness of the role of medical therapy in quitting smoking, Pfizer wil! also be making available to the public a Quitter's Guide, which provides information on the different options for smoking cessation therapy available in Malaysia.

"Varenicline represents Pfizer's commitment towards working together for a healthier world through applying innovative science to improve the quality of life for patients," said Dr Wang.

Unlike other smoking cessatior solutions that work only on controlling the withdrawal symptoms, varenicline reduces craving and withdrawal symptoms as well as the smoker's sense of satisfaction derived from smoking.

Both nicotine and varenicline act on the nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) in the brain, which is associated with nicotine dependence.

However unlike nicotine, varenicline is a partial agonist of the receptors.


1. Conzales DH, Rennard SI, Billing CB, Reeves KR. A pooled analysis of varenicline, an a462 nicotinic receptor partial ogonist versus bupmpion for smoking cessation. Presented at Surety for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco, February 2006.

2. Jorenby DE, Hays ff, Rigotfi NA, et al, for the Varenidine Phase 3 Study Group. Efficacy of varenidine, an a462 nicotinic acetylcboline receptor partial agonist, vs placebo or sustained-release bupropion for smoking cessation: a randomized controlled triaIJAMA. 2006;296:56-63.

3. Tonstad S, Hays JT, Jorenby DE, Reeves K. Billing 13, Gong J, Azoulay

5. Smoking cessation efficacy and safety of an o462 nicotinic receptor partial agonist - results from varenidine in cessation therapy: optimizing results. Presented at American Heart Association, November 2005.